The Biology and Operation of a Septic Method

Introduction to Septic Systems

The septic system is a grouping of components operating collectively to decompose household waste water. The septic tank holds the waste and breaks the organic compounds into a solid, liquid or gas. The strong waste (called sludge) settles to the bottom of the tank and should periodically be removed. The liquid waste is flushed to the distribution box and is then permitted to drain into the ground by way of a series of perforated pipes (often referred to as lines or a leach field). Gases adhere to the same path as liquids and sooner or later rise by way of the soil and enter the atmosphere. Tanks can be arranged in series for further waste therapy. Several older systems have no distribution mechanism.

The Septic Tank Layers or Horizons

Wastewater flows by means of a pipe into the septic tank. Baffles or “tees” at the inlet and outlet of the tank slows the flow of water and prevents sewage from flowing directly by means of the tank. Bacterial action inside a septic tank aids to break down the solids in the wastewater. The tank need to be big enough, and the price of flow smaller adequate, to assure sufficient “residence time” of wastewater inside the tank. The solids which can not be broken down sink to the bottom of the tank and accumulate as sludge.

Grease, foam, and lighter particles float to the surface and kind a layer of scum. The exit baffle holds back sludge and scum even though enabling a partially digested wastewater to flow out of the tank.

This image depicts the 3 layers inside the septic tank. Something that floats rises to the top rated and forms a layer identified as the scum layer. Anything heavier than water sinks to form the sludge layer. In the middle is a pretty clear water layer. This body of water consists of bacteria and chemical compounds like nitrogen and phosphorous that act as fertilizers, but it is largely absolutely free of solids.

Organic Substances

  • The concentration of all-natural and synthetic compounds in effluent are usually expressed in terms of:
  • Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), the measure of how a great deal oxygen is necessary to finish digesting the organic material left in the effluent.
  • Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), the measure of how a lot oxygen is necessary to finish the decomposion of chemicals.
  • Total Suspended Solid Content material (TST)
  • Total phosphorus and nitrogen – measures the nutrients remaining in the water

    A appropriately created and maintained septic tank removes most of the organic
    substances from raw wastewater. More removal…

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